CRBS Lesson Plan Units

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A Critical Look at Haiku and Moorish Poetry
Judith Lambert-Winfield, Dale Williams, Debbie Davis

Students will share their observations from the National Arboretum in order to explain the similarities and differences of the flora of the Eastern and Western world. Students will read and discuss Haiku and Moorish poems in order to compare and contrast technical and stylistic devices.
Keyword(s): Haiku, Moorish poems, National Arboretum, journal entry, comparative poetry

A Lesson of Creation Stories from Selected Indian Tribes
Janet Hutner

This lesson has been devised for use in a Spanish class. The lesson is part of a unit of the indigenous cultures of the Americas with specific attention given to the native cultures of Latin America. Therefore, the duration of this lesson is two to three days. It is important to note that this lesson may be modified and expanded for the purpose of incorporating this unit into another subject area. During this unit, students will read and demonstrate understanding of creation stories from several indigenous cultures, as well as include a creation story from their own culture or religion. Students will then write their own creation myth, which incorporates the common elements found in other myths.

A Midsummer Night's Dream: Nick Bottom Needs a Cloak
Ann Carlsen

As a continuing look at the Renaissance art though Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream, students will discuss the character of Nick Bottom. At this performance, Nick Bottom is filling in for Charlie in Tomie dePaola's book, Charlie Need a Cloak . Nick produces a cloak using the artisan method. An Artisan is a person who produces a product from start to finish. Students will create a loom using tag board and yarn, create a weaving using yarn, and they will identify economic resources (natural, capital, and human) in the production process.
Keyword(s): A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, Visual Art, weaving, Tomie dePaola, Charlie Needs a Cloak, loom, yarn

A Midsummer Night's Dream: Portraits in the Style of Leonardo da Vinci
Ann Carlsen

Students will create portraits of characters from A Midsummer Night’s Dream in the style of Leonardo da Vinci. They will begin by observing the rectangle shaped structure of Leonardo’s paintings and observe the proportions within the Mona Lisa’s. Then students will observe how dress, hair styles, and settings in portrait paintings give "clues" as to who the person was and when he/she lived. Each student's portrait should tell the story of their character using "clues" inspired by Leonardo.
Keyword(s): Leonardo da Vinci, portraits, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, Renaissance art, paintings

Adding Rhythm, Movements & Dynamics to African Music
Lori Pellock

Students will be able to:
* sing an African song with correct pronunciation and pitches.
* move freely and with a steady beat throughout the selected song.
* discuss with the class or a partner what events involve music in African and American society.
* listen to a piece of African "spirited" music and identify the polyphonic texture.
* find Ghana on the map.
* define the term "spirit" in African and American societies.
Keyword(s): rhythm, Africa, dance, music, jazz, map

Roxane France-Woods

I teach in a school that has a diverse student population, and it is important to me that I teach about some of the cultures that are represented in the classrooms. Using power as the vehicle to study West African communities will allow the students to examine the history, culture, customs and artforms of its people. The students will analyze the communities to illustrate that power is an integral part of a hierarchical society that uses various art forms to distinguish between different people.
Keyword(s): africa, power, symbol, textiles, mask, gold weight, color, design

African Art
Jean Cuseo-Fields

The study of African Art and how it is continuous and yet shows change not only reflects the art in a community but the values and concepts important to the times and the region. The students will become aware of elements that affect art production, materials available, influences from other cultures, supply and demand for items, as well as how these variables might change production.
Keyword(s): Africa, community, economics, mask, sculpture, film, barter

Ancient Greece Meets Meiosis: Examining the Myths of Immaculate Conception
Elizabeth Stephens

Students will explore Greek myths depicting "immaculate conception".
Keyword(s): biology, meiosis, myth, reproduction, DNA

Art and Architecture in Medieval Africa Societies: Continuity and Change Medieval African Art/Architecture: Three Steps to Research Success
Brenda Randolph

In Social Studies Unit 2, p.102-109 of the MCPS 7th grade curriculum, students extend their understanding of how contact with other cultures changed African societies in the Middle Ages by conducting research on African kingdoms or city states. This research unit uses art and architecture as cultural lens to examine change and continuity in five medieval African societies and focuses on the important concepts of continuity and change.
Keyword(s): Africa, architecture, continuity, change, research, medieval, Mali, Islam, religion

Art of Discovery
Monica Cerkez

Through this introductory unit, students will approach the subject of dealing with the unknown as it applies to their world and the world of the arts. This will be accomplished by using the age of discovery as a metaphor and framework for exploring, mapping, and cataloguing knowledge of art. Basic Art terms, class procedures and journaling skill will be introduced and modeled as tools to be used in a year-long exploration of world crafts.
Keyword(s): Portugal, map, compass rose, exploration, empire, tile-making, blue and white, ceramics, protractor, letter-writing, travel narrative, consumer goods

Being Black in a White World: An Outsider's Perception of Venetian Society
Carol Fraser

Othello is one of the most psychologically and philosophically complex plays that compel us to think about ourselves in the social context of a larger society. This is a play that contains an intellectual playground of ideas for teenagers, on the brink of adulthood, to explore and carefully contemplate. Minorities and diverse ethnic groups may grapple with the issues that Shakespeare presents, as they become lifelong examiners of the human condition in their every day platonic interactions with people and close-knit relationships. Students begin by researching the geographical setting of the play and social conventions that were prescribed by society at that time. Then, students are introduced to the characters and text of the play, as well as the Lawrence Fishburne film. The teacher then models the Literature Circles roles of a Discussion Director, Passage Master, Word Wizard, Connector, or Artful Artist to use as a discussion catalyst for the students to emulate after they have read selected lines of the play. Students then compose BCR’s and ECR’s about the different aspects of ethnic, gender and social roles in the play. Finally, students will also be expected to demonstrate understanding of the play using an appropriate art form of their choosing, such as an Othello Comic Book or multiple performances of a scene.
Keyword(s): Othello, literature, Shakespeare, ethnicity, cultural contexts, historical contexts, Literature Circles, BCR, ECR, Renaissance man

Carol Nezzo

Day 1 is an introduction to writing a Spanish poem in pantoun form. In this introduction students will trace the voyages of three explorers-- speakers of three romance languages. The exploration to Indonesia will be significant because the pantoun is from Indonesia. On day 2 students will review the MCPS first sheet of Spanish 1A vocabulary/ expressions. Then they will brainstorm Spanish vocabulary/ expressions that they associate with "El tiempo." They will learn the pantoun form, and write sentences that they may use tomorrow in their Spanish pantouns. On day 3, the class will review the theater elements and groups of four will create a Spanish pantoun and present. On their capture sheets, each student will record at least one line from each group presentation.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Spanish, romance language, pantoun, poem, Indonesia, exploration

Blackbird y el perfume
Carol Nezzo

The lesson in English introduces the students to the history of the Arab occupation of Spain. Students assist the teacher in telling the story of "Blackbird" by responding as they do to Spanish language stories: Si, No, Ahh, Oh, pobrecito, No me digas, etc. Students who wish for more participation - especially those who are kinesthetic learners - may take turns writing key words on the transparencies and outlining the objects related in the story. A second and major function of this lesson is that it prepares the students for a very short story in Spanish in succeeding lessons.
Keyword(s): Spanish, Blackbird, map, geography, Baghdad, culture, Arab

Blue and White Pottery
Elaine Jones

Through studying the travels of the Portuguese during the 16th and 17th centuries, students will find evidence that cross-cultural encounters inspire artistic productions of both countries involved. Students will learn that the blue and white porcelain originated in China and that the Portuguese started the spread of this art form throughout Europe. Each culture incorporated its own influence as well as the style and imagery of the Chinese.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Blue and White Porcelain, Santa Caterina, Coils, scoring clay, China, artistic production

Bookbinding with Collage Silhouettes, Inspired by Islamic Designs, Stories from Arabian Nights, and Shadow Puppetry
Liaa Walter, Kimberly Ross

With the Director, the students will discuss the stories from Arabian Nights in Language Arts and Social Studies class. After the introduction to the stories, the students will brainstorm visual ideas about the scenery of Arabian Nights. They will briefly discuss clothing, artifacts, geography, and in general get an overall sense of what should be included in their illustrations. With the Visiting Artist, students will then complete preliminary drawings of their illustrations. The drawings will be a general sketch, mostly silhouettes of the images to prepare for cut paper. Next, they will look over Islamic/Arabic designs that will border or frame their drawings. After practicing repeating designs and a layout of the cover of the book, the Visiting Artist will demonstrate how to bind a book in the traditional sense (with a needle and thread). Students will create and bind the book, complete with cover. Students will now transfer the design for the cover of the book.
Keyword(s): bookbinding, Islam, puppet, Arab, storytelling, Arabian Nights

Ceramics and Patterns with Islamic Roots and their Effect on Christian Europe
Monica Cerkez

The free trade of luxury goods between the Islamic sphere of influence and Christian Europe during the Medieval and Renaissance period led to a transfer and fusions of ideas and styles. This fusion is particularly visible in the Arts. In this unit students will track the transmission of ideas by studying ceramics and pattern styles and technology as they moved from China through the Middle East and into Europe. The Unit includes an investigation of Islamic Culture, Majolica Ceramic Production, the Principle of Design: Pattern and the full writing process. While this lesson is intend for Fine Arts, it has potential application for Social Studies (History, Geography) and Language Arts.
Keyword(s): ceramics, Islam, China, Middle East, Majolica, Pattern, Ceramic Production

Communication through Song: Corrido & Griot
Jacqueline Gaskins, Jennifer Johnson

The following is an integrated arts unit on Spanish language and related communicative expression and symbolism in both Hispanic and West African cultures. This unit is intended to develop students’ knowledge about the cultural aspects associated with two cultures that demonstrate significantly similar characteristics in musical expression and symbolism in the creation of textiles. Throughout this unit, students will have the opportunity to work individually and cooperatively to further explore these similarities and construct meaning through instruction and exploration.
Keyword(s): music, communication, griot, Spanish, ballad, storytelling, Mexico, Mali, Africa

Culteranismo and Saudade: Crossing cultures in the high school classroom
Louise Reynolds

In this lesson, students will investigate how art and literature are generally the product of a specific time and place as much as they are an expression of an individual vision. Students will collaborate to write a pantoum, a complex, patterned poem that reflects the desire to make an intellectual impression on the reader and incorporates their personal expression of saudade—in this case, teenaged angst. The lesson will prepare students for further discussion of Western poetry in its cultural and historical context, as well as provide them with an opportunity to work with the medium from the inside out.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Kraak porcelain, Iconography, Culteranismo, Pantoum, Fado, Saudade, Afro-Portuguese ivories, trade, exploration

Cultural Diffusion and the Columbian Exchange: Patterns of Trade from the Medieval Period to 1750 C.E.
Emily Powell, Margo Schiavone, Jo Anne Wilson

World history textbooks for middle and high school students generally lack discussion of long-distance trade, or an overview of trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere before the fifteenth century. Instead, trade is discussed as a subsidiary of lessons on regional civilizations, especially in chapters about the rise of towns and trade in Europe during the high middle ages. Students learn about the importance of European merchant classes, but the extensive merchant activity across Afroeurasia is often neglected. Textbooks from the collegiate market used for Advanced Placement World History all include hemispheric trade, but few primary source selections.
This unit provides both an overview and a close-up picture of locations, goods, and participants in trade in Afroeurasia. It allows students to compare primary source accounts of trade goods, merchants, types of markets, and effects of trade with more general secondary source information on trading societies. It also guides them in linking their understanding of how particular regions fit into the networks of Afroeurasia as a whole. Students will practice differentiating among various types of historical sources as well as moving from one geographic and historical scale to another—that is, from local to regional to hemispheric.

This unit is centered on the period from 1000 to 1250 C.E., but it encompasses related developments in the preceding and subsequent centuries.
Keyword(s): trade, Afroeurasia, cultural diffusion, map, geography

Cultural Diffusion: The Arabic Influence on Foods We Eat Today
Ruth Rhone

Students will examine the trade routes used by Europeans and Arabs during the Renaissance and also those used by the Europeans who traveled to the New World. They will discuss the ideas and commodities traded and will understand that some of the foods they eat in the United States are products of culinary evolution.
Keyword(s): French, Spanish, Latin, Arabic, food, currency, market, map, trade

Discovering a Map of Portugal
Larry Watson

During this lesson, students will work singly, in pairs and as a large group to "discover" the pieces of a puzzle map of Portugal hidden around the classroom and assemble the map within our Circle of Friends.
Keyword(s): Portugal, map, counting, spelling, discovery, puzzle, geography, Age of Discovery

Jean Cuseo-Fields

a.Students will gain an understanding the beauty of math/tessellation as applied to architecture by viewing various styles of Mosques and Churches.
b.Students work in groups and use a printmaking process to create repetitive patterns that produce an arched design doorway.
c.Students experiment with designs in The Geometer’s Sketchpad to gain the skills needed to produce a tessellation design for project.
d.Students work with a group to complete project objectives.
Keyword(s): printmaking, trade, mosque, church, calligraphy

East to West Cultural Trade of a Poetry Form: Pantun to Pantoum
Tammy Middleon

More than tangible commodities were traded throughout the East and West during the Renaissance period. This lesson introduces students to the pantoum, a poetry form that is based on a repeating pattern, creating an echo that teaches students how the meaning of ideas can change, based on cultural and historical context. The poetry form, rooted in thirteenth-century Malayan culture but celebrated as a French form, unfolds one story or idea into another unplanned story or idea that is not always controlled by an author. Students will consider the history of the pantoum, study pantoums, and learn how to brainstorm for, and use the structure of, a pantoum. They will have the opportunity to create a pantoum of their own, using fables of other cultures as a basis. Finally, students will create a visual representation of their pantoums using tessellations, a mathematical expression of a repeating pattern, as ornamental background.
Keyword(s): American studies, pantoum, poetry, fable, proverb, trade, Malay, Middle East

Economic Wants
David Difonzo

Students will learn about economic wants vs. needs in this lesson. The teacher will set up three 'continents': Indian Ocean, Africa, and Far East. At these trading posts would be ivory, ceramics, spices, textiles, etc. The students will have an opportunity to visit each region and trade something at each. The teacher explains to the students that every item traded will be returned to its owner at the end of the lesson. When they are finished trading and return 'home' to Portugal - their seats - the teacher will play "The Market" and offer to buy each of their items for candy. The Chinese porcelain might be worth five pieces of candy. The little film container of spices might be worth three pieces of candy. Silk could have a value decided by "The Market"...and so on. Class discussion will inevitably ensue, where the students make connections.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Economic Wants vs. Needs, scarcity, natural resources, capital resources, human resources, maps, trade, market, blue and white, porcelain

Effects of Discovery
Pam Lefave

This lesson builds on prior work about the Renaissance era. Students will be introduced to the concept of trade leading to world exploration and Portuguese dominance. We will read excerpts from the Letter to the King by Pero Vaz de Caminha. Students will compare the travel brochure to the letter. If time permits, we will do the introduction to the dramatization of the natives’ and the sailors’ impressions. Students will look at timelines and perform tableaux of the Portuguese colonization. Students will write a monologue (first person) taking on the persona of a native, African slave or slave owner in Brazil. Students will be asked to memorize their monologues and perform them.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Renaissance, colonization, tableau, dramatization, monologue, Brazil, letter-writing, slavery, trade, exploration, empire

Ethical Behavior in Literature from the Middle East
Lisa Landrum

The story involves a man from Cabul who annually travels to Calcutta to sell his wares for a period of time. He befriends a family, but is left on his own when he is imprisoned for seven years because he was cheated by the family’s neighbor. The students will learn how prejudice and discrimination can hurt people.
Keyword(s): Middle East, literature, Cabulliwallah

Examining Western Perceptions of Islam and the Middle East
Michelle Mitchell

There is a tremendous amount of stereotyping about Muslims and the peoples of the Middle East in American popular culture. At the same time, many history classes tend to focus on either the ancient civilizations or the Renaissance in Europe as the basis for learning and cultural developments throughout the world. The Islamic culture with its major contributions to the Renaissance in Europe is overlooked. The purpose of these lessons is to help students identify and dispel inaccurate stereotypes about the Muslim culture and begin building students’ awareness of the great Islamic culture.
Keyword(s): Muslim, Islam, stereotype, Middle East, Arab

Exotic Gifts from the East Become Essential Western Staples
Debbie Davis, Judith Lambert-Winfield, Dale Williams

This lesson will teach students how to identify the gifts of the East, to trace the origins of these gifts, and to present their findings to the class in the form of a writing activity (shape writing).
Keyword(s): Japanese, archaeology, Artifacts, Transference, Islamic Influence, Scenario, shape writing, products from the East, Middle East

Experiencing Nature
Debbie Davis, Judith Lambert-Winfield, Dale Williams

This lesson will allow students to visit the National Arboretum and view a variety of plants that originated in both the East and the West. Students will record their observations and share their experiences with classmates on their return to school.
Keyword(s): arboretum, Japanese, Journal, tactile representation, flora

Expressions of the Final Judgement in Islam and Christianity
Steve Kachadorian

The two common shared physical experiences among all humans are birth and death. It can be an unnerving truth, but a truth that all people must come to terms with at some point. Religions manifest this anxiety through stories of the end of the world and what is beyond. Whether it be the great battle between the gods and the giants from Norse mythology, the cataclysmic end of the world on December 23, 2012, as foretold by the Maya, or the Book of Revelation from the New Testament, religions have offered a version of the end to their followers. Islam and Christianity stand today as the two largest religions. To study their versions of the Day of Judgement offers the students an opportunity to read primary sources (the Bible and the Koran), analyze art, and see the similarities and differences of the two religions. Also, it does so by appealing to a universal curiosity of what lies beyond.
Keyword(s): Islam, Christianity, Judgement Day

Family Dynamics
Melanie Ware

In conjunction with our Family Dynamics Unit, students will examine the personal stresses caused by extended family separation and the ways one could cope in such a situation. This multi-paragraph composition (with emphasis on transitions and supporting details) will take the form of a personal letter from family members to the father of that family in Portugal in the 16th century. He is the captain of a trading vessel who is often gone for extended periods of time.
Keyword(s): Portugal, saudade, caravel, trade route, transitions, supporting details, tableau, map, letter writing, poetry

Flamenco and its Origins
Shannon Plantholt

This lesson is intended to challenge students’ beliefs about the origins of Flamenco music. The lesson is also intended to show how the Islamic influence on Spain led to Flamenco music and its development.
Keyword(s): dance, flamenco, belly dancing, ballroom, Gregorian chant, Islam

Fusion of Lines: Design from Afro-Portuguese Ivories and Printmaking
Jessica Guzman

Students will study the use of design and symbols in ivory works created through the interaction of Portugal and Africa. We will examine the evolution in style, imagery, symbol systems, and technique. They will study a brief history of Portugal's trade with Africa during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. They will apply what they learned by creating a design that incorporates their own symbols influenced by Portugal and Africa. The designs will then be carved onto a linoleum plate.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Positive and Negative space, Sculpture, Sierra Leone, Sapi-Portuguese, Carving, Printmaking, Motifs, Patterns, Texture, Geometric, Figure

Geometry in Islamic Design
Christina Kim, Heather Huntington

Students begin the lesson with a warm-up which investigates the symmetries of shapes. To conclude the warm-up the teacher will show a short PowerPoint presentation on Islamic Design as an attempt to evoke a connection. This presentation will be revisited at the very end of class.
As part of the body of the lesson, the students will be separated into groups and then challenged to recreate Islamic graph paper with a compass and ruler. This construction will later be modeled for the entire class to see. After the students discover how to create this grid paper, they will use the original complete grid paper given to them and tracing paper to create polygons on the tracing paper using a ruler. They will be expected to know the symmetries and regularity of the shapes they create and one student from each group will reconstruct their polygon on the overhead and share it with the class.

After a discussion of the shapes presented on the overhead, the students will complete a worksheet which will assess their understanding of the lesson. After collection of the worksheet, the PowerPoint presentation will be revisited to encourage a more in-depth discussion of the geometry in Islamic Design.
Keyword(s): geometry, Islam, tessellation, symmetry, pattern, symbol, infinity, algorithm

Getting Perspective in the Renaissance
Jennifer Fox

Students will explore the history of photography. For this unit the focus will be on the inventions and discoveries that make the functioning mechanics of a modern 35mm SLR camera. Students will define perspective in art and create the accurate portrayal of it on paper. Students will draw perspective images from observation, build a camera obscura, and use the camera to make another perspective drawing of the same object.Students will explore the history of photography. For this unit the focus will be on the inventions and discoveries that make the functioning mechanics of a modern 35mm SLR camera. Students will define perspective in art and create the accurate portrayal of it on paper. Students will draw perspective images from observation, build a camera obscura, and use the camera to make another perspective drawing of the same object.
Keyword(s): photography, Linear Perspective

Hamlet, Deception and Tricks of the Trade Used by Renaissance Painters
Deborah Shauer

This lesson connects deception with history and literature. First, the teacher will ask the students the following questions: What connection does deception have to history? Can you think of anyone who has been deceptive in history? Second, the teacher will explain that one of the masters of deception was Shakespeare and we will read an excerpt from Hamlet’s speech "to be or not to be" to demonstrate this. Third, students will read the first 30ish lines of the speech in a round robin fashion while standing in a circle three times, emphasizing different words each time. Students will also learn about realism in Renaissance painting, responding to different examples. Finally, students will draw a pop-up picture using the styles of Renaissance artists, focusing on the theme of deception.
Keyword(s): Hamlet, Shakespeare, deception, realism in Renaissance painting, "To be or not to be", Giotto, Brunelleschi, Massacio, Simi Martini, Fillipo Lippi, Palestrina, pop-up drawings

How DID We Get That Word? – The Arabic Influence on Vocabulary
Maria Barbella, Anne Brinsmade-DeFelice

Using historical data and maps, students will examine words of Arabic origin, define words with which they are unacquainted, arrange the words into categories, and determine the reason/source for the words’ inclusion in our vocabulary. Students will read and analyze selections from the travel account of Leo Africanus in order to humanize the process.
Keyword(s): Arabic, Spanish, vocabulary, Islam, map, Leo Africanus, Silk Road, trade

Ideas and Commodities Cross Cultural Regions
Carolyn Triebel

This lesson is appropriate for United States history classes, grades 9-12. It focuses on the importance of cotton during the United States Civil War and the period of Reconstruction that followed. This lesson provides an informal introduction to the class textbook by analyzing visuals, paintings, charts, graphs, and tables throughout the book.
Keyword(s): map, geography, pantoum, cotton

Identity in A Raisin in the Sun
Linda Krakaur

Identity is an important idea and topic for my students to learn about because as adolescents, they are in the process of developing their own identity and place in the larger society. High school students often experiment with and “try on” new identities as they discover the essence of who they are. This process can be demonstrated in their attire, complex relationships with peers and adults as well as the testing of societal limits. Studying identity through character study, poetry, and West African art will provide students with diverse examples of personal and social identity which can be used to explore the universal themes and issues at the crux of developing one’s sense of self and place in the world.
Keyword(s): Africa, identity, clothing, community, values, power, stereotype, economics, power, migration, race, culture, spirituality, sculpture, griot, photography, slavery, reconstruction, Jim Crow, mask, Harlem Renaissance, symbol

Illuminated Initials and Phrases in Othello
Roxane France-Woods

In this lesson, students will create illuminated initials and phrases to illustrate behavioral and emotional concepts as seen in Othello. Students often see art and literature as separate subjects. This lesson teaches students to translate the behavioral and emotional concepts of written language into multi-dimensional works of art as applicable to their daily lives. By reading and interpreting Othello's hundred lines, the students will be able to understand the connection between the historical, cultural, and social aspects of literature through art. Students begin by reading an excerpt from Othello, writing a paragraph containing their interpretation of the lines, and drawing thumbnail sketches for illumination of individual letters and phrases. After researching color schemes used during the Renaissance period, students choose one thumbnail sketch for enlargement and create an illuminated letter and phrase. Finally, each student will write a contemporary phrase using a calligraphy marker or pen.
Keyword(s): illuminated initials, illuminated phrases, Shakespeare, Othello, art and literature, gold leaf, calligraphy

Illuminated Maps and Manuscripts Drawing and Calligraphy Lesson
Rebecca Williams

This lesson will give the students a view of life as a Portuguese explorer. They will understand the idea of exploration and the importance of mapping. Background will be given on the Portuguese Empire, their travel route, various illuminated maps and manuscripts and other information pertinent to the lesson. A webquest will be completed that discusses various explorers, their tools and how they mapped their way. They will use the knowledge of exploration to then explore their own world, their neighborhood. Just as the Portuguese explorers found their way along the coasts of various lands, the students will revisit how they found their way around their neighborhood by car, bike, skateboard, foot, etc. They will use technology to help them with this task. They will map their neighborhood as part of a 2-page illuminated manuscript. They will understand the importance of symbolism in the maps and the manuscripts due to literacy issues. This map will be on one page of the manuscript and will take the place of a "miniature" or small painting. On the other page they will illuminate the border with various symbols and designs that are important to them and their neighborhood. Then within the middle space on the second page, they will write, in calligraphy, a collaborative poem that relates to their neighborhood.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Illumination, Planisphere, Gold Leaf, Calligraphy, Manuscript, Symbolism, Aesthetic, Proportion, Miniature, Border, Illuminated Letter

Imitation Bogolanfini Mud Cloth
Jacqueline Gaskins, Jennifer Johnson

The following is an integrated arts unit on Spanish language and related communicative expression and symbolism in both Hispanic and West African cultures. This unit is intended to develop students’ knowledge about the cultural aspects associated with two cultures that demonstrate significantly similar characteristics in musical expression and symbolism in the creation of textiles. Throughout this unit, students will have the opportunity to work individually and cooperatively to further explore these similarities and construct meaning through instruction and exploration.
Keyword(s): culture, textiles, communication, clothing, Mali, Africa, Spanish, mud cloth, symbol

Influences and Truth
Laurie Barnes

In today’s society, many people have stereotypes about who and what a Muslim is. These misconceptions are a problem in the public school system because vast populations of Muslims are immigrating to this country. In this lesson, I hope to expose the truth about Islam and Muslims and prove that they are a valuable addition to this country and to western civilization. In the first part of this lesson, students will complete a web quest / treasure hunt about the rich and full culture of Muslims. This web quest will introduce the students to the basics of Islamic law and tradition. Throughout the web quest, it will be the students’ responsibility to “uncover the truth”. However, some websites have been provided to aid the students in their research. The end product of the first part of this lesson is a Venn diagram and a BCR on the similarities and differences of their (the students’) and Muslim culture.

The second part of the lesson focuses on the influences and contributions that the Muslim culture has had on the western world. Students will be placed into groups of two or three. Each group will be given a contribution or a great Muslim scholar to research. When students have completed their research, they will present their findings to the class. Students can present their findings in several different ways such as a PowerPoint presentation, a written report, a demonstration of the contribution, or a visual presentation. Their research can come from the Internet, books, or scholarly journals. Throughout this lesson students will not only work on their researching skills, but also their public speaking and presentation abilities and cooperative learning skills.
Keyword(s): Islamic Webquest, Islamic Treasure Hunt, Contributions of Muslims, Islamic Culture and Religion, Teaching Islam to Middle School, Middle School Treasure Hunt

Infusing Renaissance Studies
Christopher Wolfe

Using the art of the Renaissance is an excellent tool for designing lessons in a variety of subjects. This unit plan will focus on the study of Shakespeare’s Othello, specifically Act I, Scene iii. Students begin by reading and discussing the scene. Then they create the "Othello box," a picture frame packed with found objects that relate to the scene in the play. Students will then create the "Othello journal," first by making the paper and then by composing entries from a character in the play. The students will also create an "Othello Wax Museum" by dressing as a character, choosing a pose, and writing a biography. The unit is culminated in the students' composition of Othello raps or Shrink Poems.
Keyword(s): Othello, Shakespeare, found objects, journal writing, paper-making, character biography, rap music, shrink poem

Interpreting Portuguese Expansion: Balance and Perspective
Amy Smith

This lesson involves the time period of the early modern period (15th century) during the initial globalization of the world. The lesson will focus on Portugal's rise to world power during the Age of Discovery. Students will investigate the relationship Portugal shared with its people of contact. Students will be instructed to make observations and inferences of Portugal's initial encounters and how they transpired. This interpretation of history will be exhibited through three activities: producing an interactive, graphic organizer based on the text and readings; creating and performing a tableau (a group role-play involving representations of significant moments in history); and using a rubric to evaluative the contributions of others in a collaborative classroom experience.
Keyword(s): Portugal, AP, reconquista, ceuta, Pedro Cabral, King Manuel I, King John II, Society of Jesus, Angola, Goa, tableau,

Islamic Conviviencia and Christian Inquisition
Anne Dorwart

Students will compare and contrast the Islamic tolerance of Jews and Christians to the Christian/Catholic intolerance in Spain and analyze the long-term impacts of these policies. Students will then use this historical lesson to determine how much religious freedom should be granted to a country’s citizens in today’s world.
Keyword(s): Islam, Christianity, Religious Tolerance, Conviviencia, Ottoman Empire, Catholic Monarchs, Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, Suleiman, millet

Islamic Gardens
Mary Mark Munday

As one would travel through an Islamic garden, exploring its parts, marveling at the individual design elements and comprehending the parts-to-whole, so the progression of this unit can be used. The first lessons could be used with elementary participants and successive lessons for older participants, or all can be a small introductory course in all aspects of the Islamic Garden. This, lesson 5, is the end of the garden path, the site of still water - the reflecting pool.

Using knowledge and practice of geometry, participants design and build substantial clay vessels to hold a pool of water and clay elements that are designed, built and arranged to be reflected in the water. The theme of this lesson is The Self, expressed in visual symbolic form and pattern as elements to be reflected in the water. The resulting artwork is viewed as one - object and reflection.
Keyword(s): Persian garden, Mughal garden, Persian painting

Islamic Patterns and Textiles
Gloria D. Smith

The Silk Road relates to trade routes (two land routes – north and south, and a sea route) from East Asia (Japan and China) across Central Asia, south to India, west across the Iranian plateau and countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea in Europe and Africa. This trade took place between the second century BC and the sixteenth century in Italy. There was an exchange of horses, precious gems, pottery, glass, spices, tea, and textiles. This lesson will focus on the transfer of textile goods and the influence of Islamic patterns in Italy.
Keyword(s): Silk Road, trade, textiles, origami, Islam, carpet weaving

Islamic Rugs
Jennifer Fox

Students will explore the history of Islamic rugs and produce a hooked rug with an Islamic design. By exploring the ancient culture and geography of the Islamic World, students will identify the transfer of ideas and the movement and development of ideas through decorative arts. Students will demonstrate understanding of balance through the use of geometric shapes and unity through color.
Keyword(s): Abstraction, Analogous, Arabesques, Balance-Symmetry, Radial, Color Schemes, Folk Art, Islamic, Knot or scroll work, Loom, Loop Pile, Muslim, Pattern, Renaissance, Repetition, Tessellations, Unity, Vegetal, Warp, Weft

Islamic Storytelling and the Renaissance Connection
Pam Lefave

The free trade of luxury goods between the Islamic sphere of influence and Christian Europe during the Medieval and Renaissance period led to a transfer and fusion of ideas and styles. This fusion is particularly visible in the Arts. Performances of different cultures are frequently influenced by exposure to other cultures. With the ability to trade goods and with exposure to people of different cultures, cultural and societal values are exchanged.
Keyword(s): Islam, map

Knock off Products from the Age of Discovery
Jennifer Fox

This unit will come after book production and exploration through illustration of art elements and design principles. A comparison and contrast across cultures will connect the concept of Chinese Porcelain to Dutch Delft Pottery becoming the "Knock off" Product of the Age of Exploration. This unit will begin with Renga and Pantoum poetry; the concept of metamorphosis of ideas will be explored. I will discuss the idea of trade and that what promotes it is the desire and drive for getting "it." There are exports of all kinds of things we just have to have, an x-Box, a Kawasaki, a Fendi handbag. The theory of supply and demand affects economy and trade. Also, the desire to know what was out there beyond the mapped range of land fueled exploration. This will be explained as we look at artifacts of the “Encompassing the Globe Exhibit” and specifically the blue and white pieces that change from porcelain to earthenware as the product is reinterpreted over time. The different cultures that want the blue and white ceramic product eventually make their own interpretation through their cultural lens. While doing web research, looking at the Sackler Gallery and other websites, a perspective on the scope of Portuguese trade will be grasped. By looking at images of blue and white ceramics, different types of line or shape patterns will be modeled by what is seen. A mathematical approach to patterns will be explored. Patterns will be sketched, printed, and ultimately painted. The product will be: painting blue patterns on a clear vase. The inside will be spray painted white. Portuguese music will be discussed and listened to during the studio time.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Delftware, Porcelain, Glass, Ptolemic map, Portolan map, Samba, Fado & Fadista, Age of Discovery, Motif, Icon, Cobalt Blue, Renga, Pantoum, relief painting

Lesson Planning Frame
Pam Lefave

In this lesson, students will demonstrate an understanding of the history, traditions, and conventions of theatre and dramatic text, and ways that forms of theatre satisfy cultural needs, past and present. Students begin by writing briefly about what they already know about various Greek and Roman myths, as well as the solar system. Then, they closely read a passage from Act V of Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice, focusing on the relationship between Jessica and Lorenzo portrayed in the passage. Students will compare the lines describing the sky with the information on Ptolemy’s “Wheel”, Renaissance beliefs about astrology, and Copernicus, who established the basis of modern astronomy in 1543. Students also closely read the passage about music, listen to a selection of Renaissance music, and discuss Lorenzo’s opinion about a man who is not moved by music. Students listen to a final piece of music and draw a picture of the scene during the music, either a piece of visual art, or a set rendering.
Keyword(s): Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, Renaissance astrology, Renaissance music, close reading, Copernicus, Ptolemy

Linear Perspective
Monica Cerkez

Students will create a drawing of an ideal city, using the principles of linear perspective in addition to ideas and drawings from previous lessons. They will learn how the development of linear perspective by Brunelleschi during the Renaissance transformed the picture plane, giving artists the ability to create a three dimensional extension of the real world. Students create an ideal city by drawing buildings, including a reduction of an ideal façade as a centerpiece for their city. After producing the black and white drawing in pen and ink, they will compose a written reflection, followed by group critique.
Keyword(s): linear perspective, Renaissance architecture, ideal city, façade, Brunelleschi

Linguistic and Cultural Fusion: The lasting linguistic and cultural exchange of the Arabic Language and Islamic culture on the Spanish language
Tim McKay

The Big Ideas of these lessons are lasting linguistic and cultural exchange/fusion resulting from conquest, exploration and trade. Contact between Christians of the former Roman Empire and Muslims of the Moorish Caliphates between the 8th and 15th centuries (especially in the former Al-Andaluz) have left some direct and indirect influences on the language, culture and music of Spain. Through studies of maps, poetry, vocabulary and music I hope to show this fusion.
Keyword(s): Spanish, linguistic exchange, Muslim, Christian, Moor, map, poetry, vocabulary, music

Linguistic Diversity in Spain & Mali
Jacqueline Gaskins, Jennifer Johnson

The following is an integrated arts unit on Spanish language and related communicative expression and symbolism in both Hispanic and West African cultures. This unit is intended to develop students’ knowledge about the cultural aspects associated with two cultures that demonstrate significantly similar characteristics in musical expression and symbolism in the creation of textiles. Throughout this unit, students will have the opportunity to work individually and cooperatively to further explore these similarities and construct meaning through instruction and exploration.
Keyword(s): language, communication, Mali, Spanish, diversity, French, empire, Africa

Making Akan Gold Weights and Understanding their Proverbial Meanings
Elaine Jones

The study of the gold weights from the Asante people will give students a visual perspective of ancient West African art. In the process, they will learn the proverbs associated with each piece of art and begin to understand the underlying moral teachings of that culture.
Keyword(s): identity, gold weight, Africa, proverb, culture, community, symbol, photography, sculpture

Making Shakespearean Hand Puppets
William Christ, Jr.

Students create a hand made Model-Magic clay face for a puppet based on a character from Shakespeare’ play excerpt. Using mixed media items, they will demonstrate their ability to decorate their puppets in a specific style. Through visual examples, students learn how puppets have been used since the Middle Ages for teaching and entertainment purposes. They use their literary knowledge of plays, theater production, and the elements of art to complete their puppets and prepare for a theatrical presentation.. At the end of the lesson, students will be able to compare and contrast their hand puppets and relate which specific culture or tradition their characters reflect. Students will explain their choice of character and what items they used to get the effect.
Keyword(s): puppets, Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, drama, theatrical production, visual arts, clay, acting, character development

Mary Ellen Sturm

Students will be studying Africa during the middle ages in an attempt to view the medieval world from a perspective other than the European. Prior to this lesson, students will have read in their textbook and taken notes about culture in traditional Mali and culture in Mali at the time of Mansa Musa. Then, students will be examining primary and secondary sources, including pictures, to describe the culture of the kingdom of Mali. Finally, students will write a letter from the viewpoint of an Arab trader describing aspects of culture in the kingdom of Mali.
Keyword(s): Mali, Africa, medieval, culture, diversity, Islam, Arab, map, cartography, Sundiata, Ibn Battuta, Mansa Musa, hajj, pluralistic society, cultural diffusion, continuity, change, geography

Midsummer Night's Dream, Reader's Theater
Victoria Yan

The readers’ theater that the students will produce is based on A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act 2, Scene 1, lines 155 to 269. Students begin by reading summaries (composed by the teacher) of small scenes from Shakespeare's play. In groups, each student will take a role, read the summary, and then write the lines for the dialogue. The students will also draw illustrations on the pages where they write the dialogue to add interest and clarify their writing. The students will create an appropriate ending to their dialogues, using their imagination and sense of story structure. Each group will read and dramatize their dialogue with music in the background (Mendelssohn’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream). A copy of their dialogue with the illustrations will be made available to the other groups.
Keyword(s): A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, ESOL, paraphrase, dramatizing Shakespeare, illustrating Shakespeare, Felix Mendelssohn, writing plays

Mosaic Tiles in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Style
Valerie Poole

In this lesson students will explore the history and usage of tiles in the Portuguese Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. They will compare the influences of the Portuguese Empire on the styles of Brazil, Africa and Macau, China ceramic tiles.
Keyword(s): Portugal, empire, ceramics, Pedro Cabral, Brazil, Majolica, tiles, earthenware, glaze, Macau, Africa, trade

Music in the Renaissance
Shannon Tolley

The main purpose of this unit is to have the students understand the development of music from the Medieval Period to the Renaissance Period. Part of the goal is enhancing their knowledge of how music, art, and literature are related. Students begin by identifying dates, characteristics, and events of the Renaissance period by reading and discussing the timeline and comparing a piece of Renaissance music to a Gregorian chant. Then they learn the importance of music as a descriptive term by reading 100 lines from Shakespeare’s "The Merchant of Venice." The students will identify important characteristics of composers, authors, and artists of the Renaissance period by completing a treasure hunt in the library. The unit culminates in a Renaissance Fair in the classroom, and finally in the students' composition of a book on the Renaissance period.
Keyword(s): Renaissance music, Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, Renaissance composers, Gregoran chant, Renaissance Fair, library treasure-hunt

Music in West Africa
Leona Lowery

Power is an important idea and topic for my students to learn about because understanding power is a part of their day-to-day experience. Because so much of human behavior stems from the need for acquisition of, display of and maintenance of power, students can see how this human need is represented in Western African music and how it translates into African American music of today. African American music has its roots in West Africa, and the power represented by that music is still present in modern African American forms such as Rhythm and Blues, Hip-Hop, and Contemporary Gospel. Traditional forms that have an even more direct link to Western African music are spirituals and blues. Discussing power with my class will help them see the struggles for power and the symbols of power in West African music and how those struggles and symbols are present in R&B, Pop and Gospel music.
Keyword(s): music, Africa, power, R&B, hip hop, gospel, conflict, possession, slavery, map, culture, diversity, drum, mud cloth, textiles, griot, storytelling, dance, rhythm

Music: The Renaissance Genre
Erica Moore

This unit will introduce common elements in music, poetry, dance, theatre, and the visual arts as well as the subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school to convey how they are interrelated with those of music. While listening to Felix Mendelssohn’s Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, op.21, the students will be given music dictionaries to look up and define a list of vocabulary pertinent to the Renaissance era. Students will listen to the music of John Dowland, Josquin des Prez, Claudio Monteverdi, and Michael Praetorius, identifying each piece as Choral Church Music, Dances, Lute Music, Madrigal, or Mass. Also, students will select a performance partner to learn how to play Greensleeves on their recorders, as well as steps, and social etiquette for the Pavan dance. They will discuss their experiences of with the various fine arts connections to the Renaissance period.
Keyword(s): music, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Greensleeves, Pavan dance, Felix Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, op.21, John Dowland, Josquin des Prez, Claudio Monteverdi, Michael Praetorius, recorder, musical performance

Pitching a Show
Julie Garner

Students will persuasively present an idea for an interpretation of Twelfth Night, including concept and cast, justifying their creative choices with evidence from the text. Students will use a power point slide presentation to pitch their ideas for a production of Twelfth Night one of the following: (a) the faculty director of a high school or college production, (b) the artistic director of a metropolitan professional theatre, or (c) a Hollywood studio executive. Students will consider Twelfth Night as a musical, Twelfth Night set in another time period, whether to modernize the language, and which themes in the play to focus on. By the end of five days, students present their pitches (where their classmates role play as the producers) and then write a BCR (or ECR).
Keyword(s): Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, theater, drama, pitching a show, power point, BCR, ECR, casting a play

Play Writing: Islamic Fables to Renaissance Morality Plays
Cathy James

This lesson encompasses the ability of the students to take an Islamic Fable, read it, understand its moral, and transfer it into a morality play as seen by the Medieval/Renaissance community to teach a lesson, especially to the illiterate of the time.
Keyword(s): Fable, Legend, Morality Play, Islamic storytelling, Renaissance plays

Popular Porcelains
Jean Cuseo-Fields

This lesson introduces students to Asian arts and Portuguese arts by exploring a brief history of their initial encounters through the trade routes. To engage student interest in this unit, I will use the idea of 'current trends' by asking them, as new young consumers, what new gadget they are interested in, i.e. the newest cell phone, Harry Potter book, etc., and tell them, the idea of what's new and hip and can make the inventor successful, is an age old trend.
Keyword(s): Santa Catarina, Portuguese, trade routes, porcelain, piracy, Africa, China, Brazil, blue and white, glaze, painting, sketch

Portuguese Cultural Exchange in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Sharon Pardew

The following lesson on the Portuguese cultural exchange that took place during the 16th and 17th centuries with the indigenous peoples of Brazil, India, Africa and China, will give young students the advantage of gaining an understanding of how cultures interface. The goal is that students will apprehend knowledge of how this cultural interchange produces a transformation in those participating, thus allowing new ideologies, products or styles to be birthed. The students will also create an original piece of blue and white pottery, designed in the style of artisans from the 16th century in China, bringing their personal and cultural adaptations to the artwork.
Keyword(s): Portugal, China, pottery, blue and white, Brazilwood, ivory, Macau, Chinese Ming, cobalt, Porcelain, travel, merchandise, exchange, economics, trade

Power and the Communication of Values in West African Art of the Past and Present
Susan Cantorna

The students will examine a variety of artworks from West Africa, both of the past and present, in order to realize that there are similarities between West African communities and their own. They will compare and contrast the forms and functions of bodily adornments, both of their own and of West African communities. The students will observe a video of a West African community that works together in order to design and create art-forms to be used in community gatherings. They will organize themselves into communities, decide on the values they wish to express, and then design and create a bodily adornment (armband, vest, head ornament, etc.) which represents their community. They will wear their bodily adornment at a selected community event (African drumming and dance celebration) which culminates the unit. As a result, students will more closely identify with West African communities, and the students will be able to recognize some of the commonalities of communities in general.
Keyword(s): power, values, Africa, identity, community, symbol, drum, dance, clothing, culture, subculture, peer pressure, mask, change, continuity, Mali, mud cloth

Power in Art in Japan and Mali
Harumi Ozaki-Robertson

Power is an important concept for students to learn because the dynamics and influences of power begin in the family unit and branch out in ever widening areas in school, community, business and world politics. It is important for students to realize they are controlled by power of some kind in every facet of their life. These unit lessons compare two divergent cultures where power is controlled by a caste system, a garb and performance of drumming. The caste systems of Japan and Mali both create a power structure among its populations, but they are different in content. A ceremonial garb has significant meaning of power in both countries and powerful drum performance in both countries has a long history and deep meaning of their sounds. These three areas of studies are significantly related into Japanese and West African history and also the arts forms.
Keyword(s): Japan, power, Mali, clothing, conflict, possession, culture, caste, Africa, folktale, drum, map, symbol, crest, geography

Power of Symbols in West African Art
Jessica Guzman

High school is a time in my students’ lives where they begin to learn more about themselves, peers, and their place in the community. The issue that consistently rises in their lives is power. What is it? How can they obtain it? These are some of the questions that can be answered in the examination of West Africa. West Africa has a history of power struggles from outsiders and insiders, amongst the peoples, and struggles for a voice. These are the themes that my students will be able to relate to. The analyzing of symbols used in the Asante community and in the Adinkra cloth will help students understand the power of persuasiveness and voice. Students will learn to express their own meaning and power through the creation of their own symbols on the computer. They will also create a new a short story with their new symbols and become griots for their culture. My expectation is that examining West Africa will help students learn more about Ghana, the power of symbols, and different types of power such as: voice, dominance, conflict, possession, insiders and outsiders, and persuasiveness.
Keyword(s): Africa, photography, digital arts, power, symbol, textiles, griot, logo, community, storytelling

Preparation for the Document-based Question
Matthew Ellenberger

The intent of the activity is to foster in the student a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of historical research and, indeed, of history itself. It has been my experience that students in high school have trouble with these concepts, that even after a year of study, a significant minority of my students never fully grasp this understanding of history, and of those who do, only a small number actually understand in any meaningful way the intent of the exercise. Thanks to ideas gleaned from the Crossing Borders seminar, I have devised a different approach to the matter at hand.
Keyword(s): Portugal, document-based question, DBQ, history, AP, Luso-tropical, bourgeoisie, proletariat, narrative, Aryan, Prometheus

Puck Meets Leonardo
Ann Carlsen

Students will create a puppet of Puck from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream with the help of an invention by Leonardo Da Vinci. Students will learn about the inventions of Leonardo da Vinci from books and online. They will each create a puppet of Puck and give him a Leonardo-like invention to help him find the flower. Students evaluate their work in terms of symmetry, character created, and explanation of invention.
Keyword(s): Leonardo da Vinci, Renaissance inventions, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, puppets, symmetry in art

Renaissance Art
Monica Cerkez

In this 13-day unit, students will be introduced to the historical and social context of the Renaissance, style of Renaissance art, architecture, music, dance, and literature, and they will learn to recognize the names and styles of various important Renaissance artists, musicians, writers and leading families. Students will produce a design for a Renaissance façade, use linear perspective to produce an Ideal Renaissance landscape, and produce a Renaissance self-portrait using observation and symbolism.
Keyword(s): Renaissance history, Renaissance art, Renaissance architecture, Renaissance music, Renaissance dance, Renaissance literature, Renaissance façade, linear perspective, Renaissance self-portrait

Sacred Space: Religion and Society in the Islamic World
Cynthia Ann Magruder, Paula Russo

This lesson forms part of a larger unit on Islam and builds upon the themes of human-environment interaction and cultural diffusion. These themes are introduced at the start of the course. We will continue to explore and elaborate these themes through the remainder of the year in other historical and cultural contexts. Before they start this lesson, students will have already learned the geography of southwest and central Asia and North Africa, and will have read about the birth of Islam and the history of the Islamic world.

This lesson asks students to identify seven basic elements of mosque architecture, and by doing so, to contextualize their understanding of Islam by integrating the study of the central tenets of the faith with the role that Islam plays in society. By the end of the unit, each student will have researched a specific mosque and will use the seven thematic elements to structure her own oral presentation to the class.
Keyword(s): mosque, Islam, architecture, geometry, cathedral

Sacred Space: Religion and Society in the Islamic World, How was Islam absorbed and adapted in 14th – 16th century West African kingdoms?
Cynthia Ann Magruder, Paula Russo

This lesson forms part of a larger unit on Islam and builds upon the themes of human-environment interaction and cultural diffusion. These themes are introduced at the start of the course. We continue to explore and elaborate these themes through the remainder of the year in other historical and cultural contexts.
Keyword(s): Africa, Islam, mosque, geography, religion, architecture, map

Saltcellars and the Portuguese Influence
Emily Bergquist

This unit will focus on Portuguese saltcellars. Students will understand how they were created, what they were used for, and why they were important. Then, we will explore the symbolism that decorates these utilitarian pieces by examine how Portuguese and African culture is represented through these pieces. Although these pieces may not have been actually used, the intent of these vessels was to contain a valued commodity of the time. Students will compare and contrast the ivory saltcellars of Africa with the metal saltcellars of Portugal. The culminating project will be students creating their own saltcellars, or lidded utilitarian vessels. We will explore contemporary American symbolism. Students will also explore a commodity that is highly prized today and create a vessel to hold this item. Students may combine elements of Portuguese, African, and American culture to create their saltcellar. vIn conclusion, students will write a summary of what symbols they used and why.
Keyword(s): Portugal, saltcellar, iconography, ivory, symbolism, Niniganne, Pinch pot, Africa, commodity, exploration, Venn diagram

Shakespeare Acting Style: Finding Balance Between Passion and Intellect
Paul Dougherty

In this lesson, students will identify moments when the acting process moves from the head of the actor to the heart and soul, learn the nature of Renaissance thinking as shown in Renaissance art that informs the work of Shakespeare, and identify the qualities needed to move from realistic acting into Shakespearean acting. Students discuss the different works of art used in John Guare’s Six Degrees of Separation, focusing on art that depicts the opposing forces of chaos and control. Then students use acting techniques that emphasize passion and intellect to perform short cuttings from Othello. Each pair of students uses the line, “Where’s the handkerchief?” expressing their love, then their concern, followed by other emotions until they finally come to jealousy, doubt, and rage. Students then state Othello’s super-objective, the need to find a balance between passion and order (just as Othello is trying to find balance between Iago and Desdemona). Returning to their cuttings, students will identify this aspect of passion and order and focus on the one exchange of lines that supports the super-objective.
Keyword(s): Shakespeare, acting, Renaissance acting styles, Othello, passion, intellect, John Guare, paintings, theater, acting techniques

Shakespeare and the Concepts of the Renaissance
Monica Cerkez

Students will produce an extended response written reflection on Act V of The Merchant of Venice and how it relate to the themes of classical symbolism and celestial perfection in the Renaissance. Students will read the first 100 lines of Act V, and then participate in a class reading. With the assistance of the teacher, students will identify the classical, musical and celestial reference in text. Students will connect references with Classical images and discuss the Renaissance obsession with perfection and harmony. Students will listen to music of the period and participate in simple dance with the concept of perfection and harmony, which will then be related to architecture. In closing, the students will produce a 7-minute quick write on our discussion.
Keyword(s): Shakespeare, celestial perfection, Merchant of Venice, classical symbolism, harmony, music, dance, architecture

Shakespeare’s Words as Art
Jonathan Parker

Each student will be given a copy of Hamlet’s "To be, or not to be" speech, found in Act III, Scene I, The class will form a circle, and each student will read one or more lines from the speech. This will be done several times until a smooth transition from one person to another is achieved. The teacher will then discuss the meaning of illuminated manuscripts, and show examples. The students will make a rough sketch for their manuscript. The student will be asked to place their completed manuscripts on the board and a group critique will follow.
Keyword(s): Shakespeare, Hamlet, To be or not to be, illuminated manuscripts

Storing Ideas: Calligraphy and Poetry from the Islamic World
Jacqueline Gaskins, Annette Watford Rowe

Upon completing this unit, students will be able to:

• select and apply appropriate strategies to prepare for reading informational texts in order to complete pre-reading guide questions;
• identify and explain the main idea in order to complete graphic organizers and write paragraph summaries;
• describe how the colonies developed into a diverse society reflecting various cultures and religions in order to summarize the history of Benjamin Franklin’s printing press;
• brainstorm ideas on a single topic in order to generate a structured pantoum poem;
• compose poetry using the prewriting and drafting strategies of effective writers;
• describe a topic in poetic form in order to clarify and elaborate on ideas using an organizational structure;
• in groups, reprint/scribe an earlier written pantoum poem in the format of Gothic or Roman calligraphy in order to produce an authentic looking artifact from the Renaissance period, which will include illumination and Islamic signatures;
• learn the terms of calligraphy and its significance in history in order to explore the skill of elegant writing.
Keyword(s): calligraphy, Islam, printing press, pantoum, poetry

Table Manners in the Islamic World and Renaissance Europe
Mary Ellen Sturm

Students will examine at their customs today concerning eating. Then they will look at either European or Muslim customs. Finally they will compare customs and discuss how customs were spread from one culture to another.
Keyword(s): Islamic customs, European customs during the Renaissance, Giovanni della Casa, The Book of Manners, “The Flight of the Blackbird”, Ziryab

The Actor's Task: When We First Practice to Deceive
Susan Hazard

In this lesson, students investigate the very real motivations of Shakespeare’s characters and unravel the emotions expressed by them from a standpoint of flexibility, for as human beings, rarely do we cement ourselves in one emotional spot without dipping our toes into another. Students begin by learning the concepts of logos, pathos, and ethos. Then, they compose three written interpretations of Hamlet’s “To be or not to be” speech, each of which is based on one Greek term. Students share each interpretation with others in the class. Three chairs are then placed in the front of the room, each labeled with one of the 3 concepts discussed. A student volunteer will sit in a chair of his/her choice, and deliver the entire speech with a focus on that particular concept. This is repeated, with different students. Finally, with one student in each of the 3 chairs, they begin the speech again, with students reading one at a time. As if a conductor of an orchestra, the teacher will indicate which student should speak at what time, creating a complex interpretation expressing all 3 concepts. With various combinations of students, and with students given the opportunity to ‘orchestrate’ fellow actors, this exercise should be repeated several times for maximum result.
Keyword(s): Shakespeare, Hamlet, emotion, ethos, pathos, logos, interpreting drama, monologue, soliloquy

The Art of Text in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night
Gloria D. Smith

Students will learn to write a sonnet and create a sketch of a letter in order to understand the art of text of the Renaissance era in England through William Shakespeare’s play, Twelfth Night. They will focus on the theme, love from Act 2, Scene 4 of Shakespeare’s play. Students warm up with a journal activity in which they write the name of a person/object they love, and 10 reasons why. Then they read the scene in Shakespeare and create a sonnet of their own. Students will be introduced to the Illuminated Letter, creating their own that includes symbols around first letter of their sonnet (plants, flowers, animals, etc.) and label colors on drawing paper.
Keyword(s): Twelfth Night, Shakespeare, love in the Renaissance, Illuminated Letter, sonnet

The Arts of the Renaissance
Tricia O’Neill Veneziani

This unit uses improvisation, literary analysis, and art interpretation to teach Shakespeare's Othello. While it may be difficult to incorporate every Renaissance discipline in the study of Shakespeare, this unit may remind us that if we teach Shakespeare, we are not just English teachers or just theatre teachers, we are truly multidisciplinary “arts” educators. This particular unit will focus on English language skills (unlocking the meaning of Shakespeare’s word choice), acting skills (choosing the way to deliver the lines and the movements that will best convey meaning), and interpreting art (as a means of developing character).
Keyword(s): Othello, Shakespeare, jealously in drama, improvisation, literary analysis, Renaissance portraits, Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci, Masolino da Panicale, Rogier van der Weyden, Georges de la Tour, subtext, gesture in drama

The Classical Guitar: Background, History & Comparisons
Marianne Pastelak

At the culmination of this lesson, students will be able to:

Name different parts of the classical guitar and understand their purpose in its construction.
Describe the route that ancient string instruments may have taken in their migration from the Middle East toward Spain.
Show the changes that took place in the string instruments which evolved during that migration.
Create a model or diagram of an original instrument, based on the historical and cultural facts of the evolution of the guitar.
Keyword(s): guitar, lute, oud, music

The Impact of Ancient Islamic Musical Instruments on Contemporary Music
Debbie Davis, Judith Lambert-Winfield, Dale Williams

Students will be exposed to six traditional musical instruments, experience the sound of each instrument, and relate them to contemporary musical instruments.
Keyword(s): Islamic instruments Mijwiz, Ud - Buzq, Tablah - daff, Qanun Nay, contemporary musical, instruments in the western world

The Impact of Islam on the Arts of the Renaissance: Global Fusion and Cultural Remix the Melding of Borders
Maria Barbella, Anne Brinsmade-DeFelice, Robert King, Susan Cary Strickland

This is a 3 – 4 day lesson that incorporates an arts and literature “grabber,” a jig saw research project for the students and a culminating activity in the form of a booklet, which will be prepared by the entire class using the jig saw method to incorporate the work of varied topic groups. The research component of the lesson includes the following: a web search, the use of textual resources, and the use of pre-selected handouts from the Center for Islamic Education. The overall goal of the lesson is to involve students in active learning about the “cultural remix” that occurred due to encounters between the Islamic world and all points of the globe, with a special emphasis on Western Europe.
Keyword(s): political cartoon, Islam, Architecture, Government Medicine, Science and Math, Luxury Items, Art and Literature, Textiles, Methods of warfare, Religion

The Influence of Islamic Culture on the Art of Renaissance Europe
Rob Burke

Culture does not develop in a vacuum. European art demonstrates tremendous change from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance. Many students do not realize that much of that change was due to the cultural interchange between the Islamic empires and Christian Europe. Students also are often ignorant of the close histories and beliefs of the three major monotheistic religions of the region.
Keyword(s): Renaissance, Islam, art, architecture, influence, history

The Influence of Portugal on West African Art from the 16th and 17th Centuries
Jonathan Parker

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Portugal's navigational improvements, such as more accurate maps and the caravel ship, allowed the Portuguese to reach far away lands such as Brazil, Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, China, and Japan. This cultural exchange between the Portuguese and the previously mentioned cultures created new and different forms of sculpture, ceramics, dance, and music. The purpose of this lesson is to give students a general knowledge of Portugal's "Age of Discovery." The main focus of this lesson is presenting students with the visual evidence of how West African art from the Sapi and Benin people was altered by their contact with the Portuguese.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Africa, Sapi, Benin, Age of Discovery, trade, navigation, slavery, sculpture, embossing, music

The Intrepid Travelers: Middle School Adventures on the Silk Road
Kimberly Ross, Liaa Walter

Utilizing stories from 1001 Arabian Nights, as well as primary and secondary sources, students will research the commercial and cultural transactions of peoples through Silk Road encounters. The research will culminate with the students composing first-person adventure narratives and working with a visiting artist to create original artwork which will be bound into a class adventure book.
Keyword(s): Silk Road, map, trade, Arabian Nights

The Music and the Mask: Unrequited Love in Performance
Scott Sophos

This lesson teaches students to write, rehearse, and perform a scene from Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night in order to(1) construct a script and collaborate with other actors to convey meaning to an audience, (2) develop multiple interpretations for scripts and visual and oral production ideas for presentation, and (3) experiment with various kinds of theatrical presentations ,i.e. comedy, drama, cabaret, musical comedy, etc. Students will stand in a circle and do a "round robin" reading of Act 2, Sc. IV, discussing music and love in the scene. Then they will listen to soundtracks from Broadway retellings of Twelfth Night. Students will split into groups which research music in the Renaissance, or contemporary/creative songs that share the same theme. The unit concludes with an ECR.
Keyword(s): Twelfth Night, Shakespeare, unrequited love, drama, BCR, ECR, music in drama, Renaissance music, Shakespearean music, Broadway

The Renaissance Façade
Monica Cerkez

Students will create a drawing of an ideal building using the ideas of period architects (Alberti, Brunelleschi, and Bramante). They learn about the nature of architecture in the Renaissance, including ideas of celestial perfection (Shakespeare, dance, the perfection of the circle and square), Classical elements, the advances in science, patronage, humanism, and monumental architecture as an expression of wealth, power and restraint, as well as the idea of "Renaissance Man." After completing a Renaissance façade in pen and ink, students will participate in an oral critique and produce a written reflection.
Keyword(s): architecture, façade, Renaissance man, Alberti, Brunelleschi, Bramante, patronage, humanism

The Renaissance Portrait
Monica Cerkez

This lesson introduces students to Renaissance profile portraits and the symbolism they contain. Humanism and the quest for immortality beyond the divine led to the Renaissance portrait. This image included not only a likeness, but a matrix of symbolism that spoke of the traits of the individual as well. Students begin by listing attributes that describe themselves. Students will then consult the Renaissance symbol chart to develop a list of symbols to be included in portrait. Using light and paper, students trace profiles and then add details to the image. Students will complete a Renaissance portrait in tempera paint using period costumes or modern dress, including their symbols. In closing, students compose a written reflection, followed by group critique.
Keyword(s): Renaissance portraits, symbolism in art, tempera paint, Renaissance symbolism, profile portraits, humanism

The Role of the Islamic Culture on Manuscript Illustration and its interaction with other art forms in Renaissance Europe
Maria Barbella, Anne Brinsmade-DeFelice

The students will read and identify the vocabulary from the story Aladdin and the Magic Lamp by Antoine Galland, an eighteenth-century French fraud that was inserted into the 1001 Nights. Students will then place this fictional episode in relation to the culture of the Silk Road and employ Islamic vocabulary to describe both.
Keyword(s): Manuscript illustration, illumination, borders in the Islamic, Renaissance tradition

The Word in Travel, the World of Travel Literature
Deborah Kole

Everyone travels at some time during their life. It is one of the fundamental experiences that most humans share. Journeys are the subject of just about every literary genre in existence. A journey can be a metaphor for life itself. This lesson will encompass themes of self, culture, history, writing and travel, by addressing the universal questions: what do we learn about ourselves in writing abut our travels and journeys? What do we learn about other peoples and cultures in those writings? Are there creative relationships between writing, identity and history? We will place the texts in their historical context through the exploration of exotic places and cultures, and students will study the various perspectives within texts, including the author’s point of view. This lesson will enhance the students’ research skills and expose them to the resources available to them within the school, school system, public library system, databases, and the Internet, so regular visits to the media center will be imbedded in the lesson. The required nightly assignments and deadline postings on the wiki will help these AP students to prepare for college, where deadlines and Blackboard required postings are commonplace in this day and age. It will be collaboratively teacher(s)- and student-driven, to give the students the guided help they need to work more independently on later research and writing projects.
Keyword(s): Portugal, Silk Road, flagship, friars, trade routes, troubadours, Cape Verde Islands, Octave of Easter, seed pearls, Jesuits, Brazil, wiki, colonization

Using Islamic Patterns to Create Tessellations
Janet Berry

Islamic patterns, or tessellations, influenced Christian Europe as a result of the trade in luxury goods along the routes that were established during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. This trade resulted in an exchange of ideas and goods between the East and the West. In this unit, students will see the cross-cultural influences of patterns that were created on textiles, ceramics, glasswork, metalwork and paintings in China, Japan, the Middle East and Europe. They will note the continuing influence of this cross-cultural exchange in Renaissance art and in contemporary architecture, painting, prints, textiles, and product design.
Keyword(s): Islam, tessellation, design, digital arts, geometry, mosaic

Using Perfume’s History and Manufacture to Investigate Pure Substances and Mixtures
Catherine Bloedorn

In this lesson, students will learn a small amount about the history of perfume in Muslim Spain. Students will make a simple perfume using cloves and ethanol. Students will also learn about the five techniques used in perfume making.
Keyword(s): chemistry, perfume, Muslim, Moor, Spain, religion, distillation, mixture

Using Poems to Teach Language and an Appreciation for Nature
Victoria Yan

This lesson is designed for fifth grade ESOL students. The students, of many different cultural backgrounds, speak a language other than English at home and attend ESOL class to become proficient in the English language. The ESOL curriculum is based on the English Language Arts curriculum of the school system in which I teach. In ESOL class, five language skills are focused on: reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language study.

The theme of this lesson is "living a balanced life," which is a salient aspect of Islamic culture. Possessing an ability to appreciate the beauty of nature is one facet of living a balanced life because it contributes to the development of a rounded, and, hopefully, optimistic individual. Two poems from Muslim Spain which reveal the beauty of nature through clearly-defined imagery and repeated language patterns are used for this lesson: Sun on the Horizon by Ali ibn Musa ibn Sa’id and The Beauty of the Rose by Abu al-Abbas al-Ghassani. In addition to helping students appreciate the beauty of nature, this lesson also integrates reading, writing, speaking, and language study—skills that the ESOL students need to develop. This lesson will be taught in conjunction with the poetry study unit of the English Language Arts curriculum. The duration of this lesson is 60 minutes.
Keyword(s): poem, poetry, ESOL, nature, beauty, figurative language, similes, descriptions

Using Poems to Teach Language and an Appreciation for Nature
Victoria Yan

This lesson is designed for fifth grade ESOL students. The students, of many different cultural backgrounds, speak a language other than English at home and attend ESOL class to become proficient in the English language. The ESOL curriculum is based on the English Language Arts curriculum of the school system in which I teach. In ESOL class, five language skills are focused on: reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language study.

The theme of this lesson is “living a balanced life,” which is a salient aspect of Islamic culture. Possessing an ability to appreciate the beauty of nature is one facet of living a balanced life because it contributes to the development of a rounded, and, hopefully, optimistic individual. Two poems from Muslim Spain which reveal the beauty of nature through clearly-defined imagery and repeated language patterns are used for this lesson: Sun on the Horizon by Ali ibn Musa ibn Sa’id and The Beauty of the Rose by Abu al-Abbas al-Ghassani. In addition to helping students appreciate the beauty of nature, this lesson also integrates reading, writing, speaking, and language study—skills that the ESOL students need to develop. This lesson will be taught in conjunction with the poetry study unit of the English Language Arts curriculum. The duration of this lesson is 60 minutes.
Keyword(s): poem, poetry, ESOL, nature, beauty, figurative language, similes, descriptions

Using the Patterns and Symbols of Mali Mud Cloth to Convey Identity
Janet Berry

This lesson will enable students to relate the role of the arts in defining identity. Specifically, they will examine the community in West African society and how members of that community define their role. They will see how artifacts, music and performance express identity and community as narrative and mark life passages from birth to death. Students will compare the changes in the production of mud cloth from ancient to modern times. They will see the influence of African art on their own culture. Students will gain an understanding of functional art and symbolism as it is used in African fabric design, oral tradition, music and dance and create their own symbols to match, express, and own identity in their community. Bogolanfini or mud cloth was an integral part of life in 1200-1400CE Mali. Textiles make up a third of the wealth of African people. This “mud cloth” was worn at important life passages and is an expression of national identity. In this unit, students will see the communal influences in the creation of symbols and patterns in these textiles. They will see the changes in attitude toward the making of the cloth and the move from a village identity to an international market for some versions of the cloth production. They will create their own identity using symbols in a concrete or abstract manner. They will note the continuing influence of cultures on each other in both religion and economics. Finally, they will learn to adapt an ancient process and create a sample textile that can be finished in two weeks rather than a year or two.
Keyword(s): Africa, symbol, mud cloth, identity, community, Mali, urbanization, textiles, proverb, values, culture, parable, dance, Moor

Using West African Gold Weights and African Masks as a Way of Communication
Stacy Wages

Communication is a common human experience. Great communication can lead to a viable community, while miscommunication can lead to misunderstandings and conflict. Using communication to study artistic forms of West Africa will demonstrate how societies and cultures use a variety of forms to connect with one another. Also students will understand communication as a visual, oral, tactile, or written form. Students will understand how communication can have either a favorable or detrimental result for a community. Using concepts of communication will provide students with a framework for understanding West African art and society and to relate it to their own cultures.
Keyword(s): Africa, gold weight, mask, communication, community, culture, symbol, proverb, fable, storytelling, figurative language

Verdi's Otello and Shakespeare's Othello
Michelle Stoll

Students will analyze Verdi’s Otello and Shakespeare’s Othello (3.3) and focus on the theme of jealousy in order to write a compare/contrast essay. After students read/listen to the same scene in both Verdi and Shakespeare, they will learn about contour lines in music (handout) and will draw a contour line as the teacher plays Verdi’s Otello again. In groups students will draw a contour line of the emotion/tension throughout the scene in Othello, and complete the worksheet on Shakespeare’s Othello in order to analyze certain elements of the "shape" of Shakespeare’s play. For homework, students finish a journal entry (ECR) in which they compare and contrast Verdi’s and Shakespeare’s treatment of the theme of jealousy by examining the elements of each art form that elicits this emotional effect.
Keyword(s): Othello, Shakespeare, Otello, Verdi, opera, drama, adaptations of Shakespeare, ECR, contour lines, jealousy in literature

West Africa
Amy Smith

Why are the big idea and topics important for my students to learn? Identity is an important idea for my students to learn about because it reveals distinguishing cultural traits. Identity is who people are. Identity is also about recognition of a person or thing. Using identity to teach the politics, religion, social structure and economics of West Africa will portray that cultural characteristics adapt to outside influences in order to survive, but at the same time show continuity of the past.
Keyword(s): Africa, identity, culture, economics, architecture, social structure, gender, class, diversity, Islam, gold, salt, religion, epic, slavery, colonialism, trade, map, geography

West African Art
Tara Kelly

By looking at the items Westerns have perceived as art more closely, we will be able to understand the culture of West Africa. By unlocking the meaning behind these items we will discover social, economic and political forces of West Africa. Through this discovery, students will be able to appreciate the sophistication of West African Culture.
Keyword(s): Africa, identity, culture, economics, values, geography, change, continuity, cultural diffusion, pluralistic society, stereotype, photography, jewelry, mask, gold weights, textiles, storytelling, Sundiata, symbol, mosque, Mansu Musa

Where We Came From~Examining Ancient African Civilizations
Jermaine Ellerbe

While reading to be informed, students will be able to identify and describe characteristics of selected West African Civilizations in order to comparatively trace their cultural development.
Keyword(s): Africa, identity, culture, civilization, map, geography

Who's Being Framed?: An Examination of The Fables of Bidpai
Lesley Choy

The study of the humanities facilitates the achievement of a balanced and fulfilled life. Ideas born in Eastern Humanism and transmitted West infinitely enriched the European Renaissance. One such idea, a literary structure known as the "framed" tale, spread to Europe largely due to the popularity of Ibn al-Mugaffa's brilliant translation of The Fables of Bidpai, from Persian to Arabic. (During the Renaissance classic works in Arabic, the language of Islam, were especially sought for translation to Latin.) In the "Zirac and Friends" stories, which appear in The Fables of Bidpai, "Friendship" is a most central theme.
Keyword(s): fables, Fables of Bidpai, framing, literary, humanism, Ibn al-Mugaffa, Islam, Kalila and Dimna, Renaissance, Islamic influence

Wire Sculptures and Othello
Gloria Shelton

In this lesson, students create wire sculptures to express emotional or behavioral concepts portrayed in Othello by William Shakespeare, Act 1 scene 3. Students often fail to see a correlation between the Art and Literature of THE Renaissance and Contemporary Art and Literature and how the social and cultural issues of society can influence the Arts of either/any era. This unit serves as a bridge to understanding that behavioral and emotional concepts and social and cultural issues that appear in Literature of the Renaissance, specifically Shakespeare’s Othello, are the same concepts that appear in contemporary society and thus all Art forms. At the conclusion of this unit students will not only be able to visually interpret the concepts mentioned in Othello but have the ability to visually interpret the same concepts found in contemporary prose; such as that which appears in POP or RAP that is so much a part of contemporary life.
Keyword(s): Othello, Shakespeare, art and literature, Renaissance art, wire sculpture, emotion in art